The Lenni Lenape at Arwamus
The local Lenni Lenape people are still here in South Jersey and we think it best for the Lenni Lenape to tell their story:
The Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape: https://nanticoke-lenape.info/
We suggest reading the online book by John R. Norwood :
"The Tribal Saga of New Jersey’s Nanticoke and Lenape Indians"
The Lenni Lenape at Gloucester
The first people along the Delaware River call themselves "Lenni Lenape".
At the time the Dutch arrived in the Delaware River, the Lenni Lenape located in present day Gloucester City along the Timber Creek were known as the ARMEWAMEX and their village was known as ARWAMUS.
A 1983 archeological study at a construction site along the Delaware River at Market and King Streets in Gloucester City resulted in the discovery of nearly 16,000 artifacts.
These artifacts indicated human habitation first occurring during the Archaic period (8000 B.C to 1000 B.C.).
Artifacts of a more expansive human occupation appear during the Early/Middle Woodland period (c.a. 500 BC – A.D. 700).
A ossuary or mass human grave discovered at the site, indicates habitation continuing into the Late Woodland period (c.a. 700 – 1700 ).
With in 100 years of the Dutch arrival in the 1620's, nearly all of the Lenni Lenape in the area were gone.
After the British took control of New Jersey (1664 ) from the Dutch, the London Commissioners purchased the area above Timber Creek to Rancocas Creek from the remaining Lenni Lenape people on September 10, 1677.
[ The dates noted in the 1983 archaeological study use B.C. and A.D. which where in use at the time of the study and as such listed here. ]
Gloucester City Native American
Archaeological Historic District
( Gloucester City Middle School construction)
"Presents archaeobotanical evidence from Gloucester City Native American Archaeological historic district of cultivars and wild plants such as grasses (maize, bristlegrass, little barley/wild rye), sunflower, and squash. In particular, evidence of maize was found on a ceramic style from 200 CE – 800 CE beneath “house pattern with a post mold” with radiocarbon dates of c. 885-995 CE."
"Heinrich, A. R., 2016, Lenape Horticulturists: Moving the ‘Maize Debate’ Forward in the Lower Delaware River Valley, Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology 32:9-25"
The Armewamus Band of New Jersey: Other Clues to Differences Between the Lenopi and Lenape Between the Lenopi and Lenape.
West Chester University
Digital Commons @ West Chester University
1656 Images of Native American Villages
Images are from a Dutch map of the New York, Pennsylvania New Jersey and are said to be from 1656; later reprinted in 1685.
One difference with the villages in the southern New Jersey area, would have been that they would not be surrounded by a wooded palisade, as the local tribes were less likely to need protection from other tribes.
Delaware River Map ( 1655 )
Map list the Native Americans tribe locations and name of the creeks along the Delaware.
"Nova Suecia, eller the Swenska Revier [now Delaware River] in India Occidentalis"
The New York Public Library Digital Collections. 1655 - 1884.
( 19 ) is present day Newton Creek South Branch
( 20 ) is present day Timber Creek
Chart of the sea coasts of New Nederland, Virginia, New-England, and Penn-Silvania, with the city of Philadelphia, from Baston to Cabo Karrik
(by by Hendrick Doncker 1688 )
Includes: Timmer Kil ( Present Day Newton Creek, "Timmer Kil" which is sometimes confused for the present day Timber Creek. )