From Fort Nassau to Gloucester Town

The Dutch colony of New Netherland was surrendered to the English starting 1664 and in 1674 the Dutch renounced all claims to the area.

As early as 1675 the British, at least on paper attempt to settle the area under the name “Bethlem Township”. This is what was the first attempt by the English to settle what would later become Gloucester. But not much came of “Bethlem Township” but it does appear on maps from the period.

Gloucester Town was created when Gloucester County was created in 1686. Gloucester County then was what today is all of present day Gloucester, Camden (1844) and Atlantic (1837) Counties. Prior to that Gloucester County was part of Burlington County.

Gloucester Town was the county seat for Gloucester County from 1686 until 1786. When a fire destroyed the county court house, it was decided to move the county seat to Woodbury which continues to serve at the county seat for Gloucester County.

Gloucester Town became part of Camden County when it was created in 1844.

As part of its role as the county seat Gloucester Town would host the courts, gaol (jail) and often was the place of punishment including executions. Inns & Taverns were needed to host those having business with the county.

The Gloucester Fox Hunting Club was here:

The most famous inn & tavern in Gloucester Town was Hugg's Tavern which beside hosting court business, was rendezvous point for the member of the Gloucester Fox Hunting Club from 1766 until 1818.

The hounds for the fox hunt club were kept at Gloucester Town. The Gloucester Fox Hunt Club members were some of the most prominent members of Philadelphia society along with number of Gloucester County residents.

Hugg's Tavern was located on the Delaware River also was a the location of the Gloucester and Greenwich Point Ferry landing which afforded the members of the club an convenient crossing from Philadelphia to New Jersey.

More on the club and it's members can be found in this 1830 account:

Betsy Ross was Here:

The November 4, 1773 marriage of John Ross & Elizabeth Griscom; better known as, Betsy Ross likely took place at Hugg's Tavern since John Ross was a friend to the Hugg family. The Justice of the Peace James Bowman of Gloucester Town, who lived at the nearby malt house, performed the ceremony.

Their marriage license, like all marriage licenses at that time is signed by the (last) Royal Governor of New Jersey; William Franklin who was Ben Franklin's son.

Gloucester Town resident, Samuel Harrison, the Mariner

and sometimes a smuggler.

Gloucester Town resident Samuel Harrison had a plantation in the north end of Gloucester along the Newton Creek. His home was located on present day North Brown Street.

Harrison's profession was that of a Mariner and he was caught trying to bring in un-taxed cargo in 1694 on board the "Pennsylvania Merchant". This resulted in confiscation of the 80 ton vessel. It appears Harrison would be able to re-acquire the vessel by likely paying court imposed the liens.

Samuel Harrison, the Mariner is captured by pirates.

In the month of April, 1700, the 80 ton vessel "Pennsylvania Merchant" was mastered by Samuel Harrison of Gloucester Town, NJ.


The "Pennsylvania Merchant" was coming from London and was heading to Philadelphia. As she approached the Delaware Bay she was followed by another vessel which was the pirate vessel "La Paix".


Captain Samuel Harrison's vessel was chased south to Cape Henry Virginia where the "Laypasse" [ aka the "La Paix"] forced surrender.


The pirates took the cargo and passengers from the "Pennsylvania Merchant" and set fire to her and she sunk.

Hugg's Tavern on the Delaware River around 1929 just prior to it being torn down.

1773 Marriage License for John & Betsy Ross >

1675 : English Map of New Jersey

John Seller & William Fisher

This map was used by William Penn for the purpose of enticing investment in his interest in New Jersey.


John Carter Brown Collections / The John Carter Brown Library

https://jcb.lunaimaging.com/luna/servlet/detail/JCBMAPS~1~1~1593~102010002:A-Mapp-of-New-Jersey-in-America?qvq=q:jersey&mi=1&trs=118

ca 1678 map of “Bethlem Township” and the Dutch fort.

As early as 1675 the British, at least on paper attempted to settle the area under the name "“Bethlem Township”. This is what was the first attempt by the English to settle what would later become Gloucester. Not much came of “Bethlem Township” but it does appear on maps from the period.

John Carter Brown Collections / The John Carter Brown Library

https://jcb.lunaimaging.com/luna/servlet/detail/JCBMAPS~1~1~1458~100890002:A-Mapp-of-Virginia-Mary-Land,-New-J#

1686 - Gloucester Town

Thomas Sharp laid out Gloucester Town in 1686.

Market Street, then know as High Street appears as the main road running east from the Delaware River.

The market square would the present intersection of King and Market Streets.

(Click on image for West Jersey History Project image)

1686 - The Liberties of Gloucester

Sharp's survey of Gloucester Town and it's surrounding suburbs or liberties.


(Click on image for West Jersey History Project image)

1686 Gloucester Town property owners

[ REMINISCENCES Of OLD GLOUCESTER: OR INCIDENTS IN THE HISTORY OF THE COUNTIES OF GLOUCESTER. ATLANTIC AND CAMDEN.NEW JERSEY.

BY ISAAC MICKLE 1845 ]

( Click on image for link to Mickle's book online )

1768- Marriage of John Heritage and Susannah Marple

8th of December 1768

Justice of the Peace John Hinchman

Heritage ran a Tavern on King Street

&

made a land purchase on July 4th 1776.

[ Gloucester City Historical Society / file 54-1 ]

1773

King George the Third

Patent for Gloucester Town